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Department of Chemical Engineering


The subset of plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) that coprecipitate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL-EVs) carry coagulation and fibrinolysis pathway proteins as cargo. We investigated the association between LDL-EV hemostatic/fibrinolysis protein ratios and post-acute myocardial infarction (post-AMI) left ventricular (LV) remodeling which precedes heart failure. Protein concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), SerpinC1 and plasminogen were determined in LDL-EVs extracted from plasma samples obtained at baseline (within 72 h post-AMI), 1 month and 6 months post-AMI from 198 patients. Patients were categorized as exhibiting adverse (n = 98) or reverse (n = 100) LV remodeling based on changes in LV end-systolic volume (increased or decreased ≥15) over a 6-month period. Multiple level longitudinal data analysis with structural equation (ML-SEM) model was used to assess predictive value for LV remodeling independent of baseline differences. At baseline, protein levels of VWF, SerpinC1 and plasminogen in LDL-EVs did not differ between patients with adverse versus reverse LV remodeling. At 1 month post-AMI, protein levels of VWF and SerpinC1 decreased whilst plasminogen increased in patients with adverse LV remodeling. In contrast, VWF and plasminogen decreased whilst SerpinC1 remained unchanged in patients with reverse LV remodeling. Overall, compared with patients with adverse LV remodeling, higher levels of SerpinC1 and VWF but lower levels of plasminogen resulted in higher ratios of VWF:Plasminogen and SerpinC1:Plasminogen at both 1 month and 6 months post-AMI in patients with reverse LV remodeling. More importantly, ratios VWF:Plasminogen (AUC = 0.674) and SerpinC1:Plasminogen (AUC = 0.712) displayed markedly better prognostic power than NT-proBNP (AUC = 0.384), troponin-I (AUC = 0.467) or troponin-T (AUC = 0.389) (p < 0.001) to predict reverse LV remodeling post-AMI. Temporal changes in the ratios of coagulation to fibrinolysis pathway proteins in LDL-EVs outperform current standard plasma biomarkers in predicting post-AMI reverse LV remodeling. Our findings may provide clinical cues to uncover the cellular mechanisms underpinning post-AMI reverse LV remodeling.

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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


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