Document Type


Publication Date



Department of Chemical Engineering; Health Research Institute


Since influenza and coronaviruses are currently deadly and emerging threats worldwide, better treatment, remediation and prevention options are needed. In that regard, a basic understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2/COVID-19 () and other viral pathogen mechanisms of transmission are expected. Unfortunately, unprecedented, and growing distrust of vaccines and even masks or personal protective equipment (PPE) in the United States and elsewhere presents itself as an added challenge. We postulate that development of improved and highly effective prophylactic measures, together with new life-saving therapies that do inhibit or otherwise treat infection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza and other viral pathogens, could be an adjunct measure to globally protect vulnerable individuals from pandemic threats. In this review, we share what we learned from the past COVID experience to offer a multifactorial and improved approach to current and future pandemic infections or threats using low-cost means.

Publisher's Statement

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Publisher's PDF



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.