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College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science


Populus is a genus of 25−30 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, which are primarily planted in short-rotation planations for producing timber, pulpwood, wooden products as well as bioenergy feedstock; they are also widely planted in agricultural fields and along roadsides as shelter forest belts for windbreak, decoration, and reduction of pollutants and noise. Moreover, their fast-growth and good adaptation to marginal lands enable them to provide some critical ecosystem services at various phytoremediation sites for land restoration and reclaimation. Thanks to their important roles, breeding for fast growing poplar trees has been one of the most important objectives for nearly a century. One of the most demonstrated, documented achievements in this aspect is polyploid breeding, especially triploid breeding. This paper critically reviews the various techniques used in inducing triploid plants, including natural 2n formation, artificial induction of 2n male and female gemmates through chemical or physical treatments, trait characterization of the triploid and tetraploid breeding populations, unveiling the molecular mechanisms underpinning the significantly improved traits, and identification and selection of the best triploid progenies. This review also recapitulated the challenges and strategies facing the future of triploid breeding in Populus, including amelioration of 2n gamete induction techniques and efficiency, selection of the best parents and identification of the best progrenies, utilization of the huge amount of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and other omics data for selecting parents for improving target traits.

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© 2022 by the author(s). Published by Maximum Academic Press, Fayetteville, GA. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title

Forestry Research

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


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