Document Type


Publication Date



College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science


Dwarfing is an important agricultural trait for intensive cultivation and effective orchard management in modern fruit orchards. Commercial citrus production relies on grafting with rootstocks that reduce tree vigor to control plant height. Citrus growers all over the world have been attracted to dwarfing trees because of their potential for higher planting density, increased productivity, easy harvest, pruning, and efficient spraying. Dwarfing rootstocks can be used to achieve high density. As a result, the use and development of dwarfing rootstocks are important. Breeding programs in several countries have led to the production of citrus dwarf rootstocks. For example, the dwarfing rootstocks ‘Flying Dragon’, ‘FA 517’, ‘HTR-051’, ‘US-897’, and ‘Red tangerine’ cultivated in various regions allow the design of dense orchards. Additionally, dwarf or short-stature trees were obtained using interstocks, citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) and various chemical applications. This review summarizes what is known about dwarf citrus rootstocks and the mechanisms underlying rootstock–scion interactions. Despite advances in recent decades, many questions regarding rootstock-induced scion development remain unanswered. Citrus rootstocks with dwarfing potential have been investigated regarding physiological aspects, hormonal communication, mineral uptake capacity, and horticultural performance. This study lays the foundation for future research into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying citrus dwarfing.

Publisher's Statement

© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Publisher's PDF



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.