Evaluation of machine learning techniques with AVIRIS-NG dataset in the identification and mapping of minerals

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Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences


Identifying valuable mineral resources is obligatory for human development and survival due to their scientific and economic implications. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing (HRS) is an efficient technique that empowers us to precisely identify and map altered minerals based on spectral absorption curves in the VNIR and SWIR range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Machine Learning Algorithms (MLAs) are a subclass of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that improves and automate HRS based lithological mapping using spectra based classification approach. The present study evaluates various MLAs in identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered and weathered minerals such as kaolinite, talc, kaosmec, and montmorillonite. The study was performed with the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) hyperspectral dataset of Jahazpur town of Bhilwara district in the state of Rajasthan, India (75° 9′ 57′' E, 25° 32′ 24″ N). The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm was applied to create a reference mineral distribution map for the target mineral classes. Further, the reference map has been verified with the field validation survey. A total of 828 pixels were identified as end member pixels. The obtained endmember pixels were further used for developing predictive machine learning based models for mapping the mineral resources using eight supervised classifiers, namely Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbor, Decision Tree, Random Forest, Logistic Regression, Artificial Neural Network, Linear Discriminant Analysis, and Naïve Bayes. The performance of the classifiers was measured using the kappa coefficient, overall accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, Matthews's correlation coefficient, and ROC curve. It was observed in the study that the Support Vector Machine outperformed all the classifiers in terms of overall accuracy and AVIRIS-NG data poses an excellent potential for mineral mapping using machine learning based models in a diverse mountainous area.

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Advances in Space Research