Plant cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins: an update on classification, nomenclature, evolution and resources

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Department of Biological Sciences


Standardized naming systems are essential to integrate and unify distinct research fields, and to link multi-species data within and across kingdoms. We conducted a comprehensive survey of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (CRPs) in the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana and the monocot model rice, noting that the standardized naming system has not been widely adopted in the plant community. We generated a database linking the old classical names to their updated and compliant names. We also explored the sequences, molecular evolution, and structural and functional characteristics of all plant CRP families, emphasizing evolutionarily conserved and plant-specific features through cross-kingdom comparisons. Unlike fungal CRP paralogs that were mainly created by whole-genome duplication (WGD) or retroposition under a concerted evolution mode, plant CRP genes evolved primarily through both WGD and tandem duplications in a rapid birth-and-death process. We also provide a web-based resource ( with the aim of sharing the latest knowledge on plant CRPs and facilitating the continued development of a standardized framework across the entire community.

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The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology