Document Type


Publication Date



Department of Biological Sciences


Lead (Pb) contamination in soils of residential properties due to peeling and chipping of Pb-based paint can cause human health problems. Phytoextraction is a green technology that has the potential to remediate soil Pb. The efficiency of phytoextraction is dependent on the geochemical forms of Pb in soil. A biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), was previously shown to enhance Pb removal by facilitating phytoextraction. In this study, EDDS was tested at various concentrations for its potential in mobilizing Pb in urban residential soils in Jersey City, New Jersey, and San Antonio, Texas. Results show that the concentrations of plant-available forms of Pb increased with the increasing dosage of EDDS from 2 to 30 mmol/L. The addition of EDDS at 30 mmol/L resulted in the conversion of up to 61.2% and 68.9% of the total Pb to plant-available forms in Jersey City and San Antonio soils, respectively. Further analysis showed that, after EDDS application, carbonate-bound Pb, oxide-bound Pb, organic-bound Pb, and residual silicate-bound Pb were transformed to plant-available forms. Higher doses of EDDS performed better than lower doses in transforming soil Pb forms, especially for the oxide-bound Pb. Strong correlations between Pb concentrations measured on-site using a portable X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer (p-XRF) and those obtained in the laboratory using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) confirmed that p-XRF is a reliable rapid, convenient technology to measure Pb levels in situ.

Publisher's Statement

© 2022 Zhang, Sarkar, Sidhu, Warke and Datta. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Publisher’s version of record:

Publication Title

Frontiers in Sustainable Cities

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Publisher's PDF

Included in

Biology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.