Title

Controlled breathing and autonomic rhythms: Influence of auditory versus visual cues

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

12-2021

Department

Department of Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology; Health Research Institute

Abstract

We compared standard metrics of autonomic control in 20 humans (10 female) during spontaneous and controlled breathing. Subjects controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz following a metronome (auditory) or scrolling waveforms (visual). Respiratory rates and heart rates were lower during spontaneous breathing compared with auditory and visual. One heart rate variability metric was higher during visual compared with spontaneous breathing, but baroreflex sensitivity and muscle sympathetic nerve activity were not affected by breathing cues. A majority of subjects (86%) perceived that breathing to auditory cues was more difficult compared with visual cues, but this elevated perceived stress did not manifest physiologically.

Publication Title

Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical

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