Atrial and ventricular flows across a transcatheter mitral valve

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Department of Biomedical Engineering


OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the haemodynamic performance of transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) Implant with a focus on turbulence and washout adjacent to the ventricular surface of the leaflets. TMVR holds the promise of treating a large spectrum of mitral valve diseases. However, the haemodynamic performance and flow dynamics of such replacements are not fully understood. METHODS: A tri-leaflet biopsrosthetic TMVR represented by Caisson implant of size 36A was implanted in the mitral position of a left heart simulator pulse duplicating system under physiological conditions. The 36A implant covers an anterior-posterior range of 26-32 mm and a commissure-to-commissure range of 30-36 mm. Transmitral pressure gradient, effective orifice area and regurgitant fraction were calculated. Particle image velocimetry was performed to evaluate turbulence in 2 perpendicular planes (Reynolds and viscous shear stresses, respectively). Additionally, dye experiments were performed to visualize washout. RESULTS: Transmitral pressure gradient was 1.29 ± 0.27 mmHg and effective orifice area was 2.96 ± 0.28 cm2. Regurgitant fraction was 14.13 ± 0.08%. Total washout was 4.27 cardiac cycles. Largest viscous shear stress reaches 3.7 Pa and 2.4 Pa in ventricle and atrium, respectively. Reynolds shear stress in the atrial side was side, the largest Reynolds shear stress reached ∼35 Pa. CONCLUSIONS: TMVR leads to favourable haemodynamics with low degree of turbulence combined with fast washout around the leaflets indicating promising potential for freedom from blood damage potential and thrombosis corroborated by initial clinical studies as part of the valves's Early Feasibility Study.

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© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivab032

Publication Title

Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery