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Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics; Department of Chemical Engineering


Gas identification/classification through pattern recognition techniques based on gas sensor arrays often requires the equilibrium responses or the full traces of time-series data of the sensor array. Leveraging upon the diverse gas sensing kinetics behaviors measured via the sensor array, a computational intelligence-based meta-model is proposed to automatically conduct the feature extraction and subsequent gas identification using time-series data during the transitional phase before reaching equilibrium. The time-series data contains implicit temporal dependency/correlation that is worth being characterized to enhance the gas identification performance and reliability. In this context, a tailored approach so-called convolutional long short-term memory (CLSTM) neural network is developed to perform the identification task incorporating temporal characteristics within time-series data. This novel approach shows the enhanced accuracy and robustness as compared to the baseline models, i.e., multilayer perceptron (MLP) and support vector machine (SVM) through the comprehensive statistical examination. Specifically, the classification accuracy of CLSTM reaches as high as 96%, regardless of the operating condition specified. More importantly, the excellent gas identification performance of CLSTM at early stages of gas exposure indicates its practical significance in future real-time applications. The promise of the proposed method has been clearly illustrated through both the internal and external validations in the systematic case investigation.

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/). Publisher’s version of record:

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