Title

Recent advances and directions in the development of bioresorbable metallic cardiovascular stents: Insights from recent human and in vivo studies

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

1-1-2021

Abstract

Over the past two decades, significant advancements have been made regarding the material formulation, iterative design, and clinical translation of metallic bioresorbable stents. Currently, magnesium-based (Mg) stent devices have remained at the forefront of bioresorbable stent material development and use. Despite substantial advances, the process of developing novel absorbable stents and their clinical translation is time-consuming, expensive, and challenging. These challenges, coupled with the continuous refinement of alternative bioresorbable metallic bulk materials such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), have intensified the search for an ideal absorbable metallic stent material. Here, we discuss the most recent pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the efficacy of bioresorbable metallic stents and material candidates. From this perspective, strategies to improve the clinical performance of bioresorbable metallic stents are considered and critically discussed, spanning material alloy development, surface manipulations, material processing techniques, and preclinical/biological testing considerations. Statement of significance: Recent efforts in using Mg, Fe, and Zn based materials for bioresorbable stents include elemental profile changes as well as surface modifications to improve each of the three classes of materials. Although a variety of alloys for absorbable metallic stents have been developed, the ideal absorbable stent material has not yet been discovered. This review focuses on the state of the art for bioresorbable metallic stent development. It covers the three bulk materials used for degradable stents (Mg, Fe, and Zn), and discusses their advances from a translational perspective. Strategies to improve the clinical performance of bioresorbable metallic stents are considered and critically discussed, spanning material alloy development, surface manipulations, material processing techniques, and preclinical/biological testing considerations.

Publication Title

Acta Biomaterialia

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