Macro Porosity Formation: A Study in High Pressure Die Casting

Document Type


Publication Date



Department of Materials Science and Engineering


Porosity formation in high pressure die casting (HPDC) impacts mechanical properties and casting quality. Much is published regarding micro porosity and its impact on mechanical properties, but there is limited research on the actual formation of macro porosity. In production applications, macro porosity plays a critically important role in casting quality and acceptance by the customer. This paper argues that the most useful definition of macro porosity is the limits of visual detectability. With this definition, it will be shown macro porosity presents stochastically within a controlled HPDC process. This means macro porosity has a random probability distribution or pattern that should be analyzed statistically and cannot be predicted precisely. The general region where macro porosity forms is predictable with simulation, but its actual size and distribution of the voids are random. These results challenge the industry accepted practices for inspections and process controls. This also underscores the importance of up-front design for manufacturability to avoid macro porosity-related quality issues.

Publication Title

International Journal of Metalcasting