Design, actuation, experimental setup and testing of a 4-cylinder gasoline spark ignited variable compression ratio engine

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics


The thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle engine is directly related to the compression ratio (CR). However, in a spark-ignited engine, the CR is often restricted by full load knock, thus limiting part load efficiency. A proof of concept design and experimental study has been conducted on a 4-cylinder naturally aspirated spark-ignited (SI) engine whereby a four-bar linkage mechanism has been implemented to vary the CR. The base engine selected was a production 2.0L GM-LNF SI 4-cylinder engine with a stock CR of 9.2:1 and with a bore and stroke of 86mm and 86mm, respectively. The engine was modified to allow the centerline axis of rotation of the crankshaft to translate in an arc about a fixed point. With the use of the four-bar mechanism, and larger dome volume pistons, a range of 8:1 to 11.5:1 CR was achieved. The prototype VCR engine was tested and analyzed at three different CR's at a fixed load of 600 kPa net indicated mean effective pressure gross (IMEPGROSS) at an engine speed of 1000 revolutions per minute (RPM). At this condition, a sweep of combustion phasing was conducted. with a stoichiometric air to fuel mixture for each case. The CR's selected for engine testing were 8.7:1, 10.2:1, and 11.1:1. The processed data includes averaged cycle analysis of each of the test conditions including combustion phasing, combustion duration, and cycle variation. The combustion data was also analyzed to determine overall heat release, indicated gross, net, pumping mean effective pressures, and indicated fuel conversion efficiency for each of the CR's. The studies show an indicated fuel conversion efficiency of 31.2% for the 8.7:1 CR. As the CR was increased to 10.2:1 and 11.1:1 the relative increase in efficiency was 7.1% and 9.7% respectively at MBT combustion phasing.

Publication Title

ASME 2020 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF 2020