Document Type

Article

Publication Date

12-26-2020

Department

Department of Biological Sciences

Abstract

The use of insensitive munitions such as 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is rapidly increasing and is expected to replace conventional munitions in the near future. Various NTO treatment technologies are being developed for the treatment of wastewater from industrial munition facilities. This is the first study to explore the potential phytoremediation of industrial NTO-wastewater using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.). Here, we present evidence that vetiver can effectively remove NTO from wastewater, and also translocated NTO from root to shoot. NTO was phytotoxic and resulted in a loss of plant biomass and chlorophyll. The metabolomic analysis showed significant differences between treated and control samples, with the upregulation of specific pathways such as glycerophosphate metabolism and amino acid metabolism, providing a glimpse into the stress alleviation strategy of vetiver. One of the mechanisms of NTO stress reduction was the excretion of solid crystals. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the presence of NTO crystals in the plant exudates. Further characterization of the exudates is in progress to ascertain the purity of these crystals, and if vetiver could be used for phytomining NTO from industrial wastewater.

Publisher's Statement

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0/). Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010074

Publication Title

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Version

Publisher's PDF

Included in

Biology Commons

Share

COinS
 
 

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.