Insights into the nonclassical crystallization of M(II) in the biomineralization process

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



Department of Materials Science and Engineering


Microorganisms coexist in nature and interact with various metal ions and metallic compounds, ultimately affecting their migration rates, circulation processes, and distribution states in the environment; microorganisms participate in every step of the biogeochemical cycle with metal ions. The core processes of metal-ion biomineralization involve the combination of metal ions and organic matter, electron transfer between microbial minerals, the transformation of complexes, and changes in the valence or oxidation states of cations. Significant evidence of biological action has been found in sedimentary deposits or key zones on the surface of the earth for many metal ions present in the divalent state, or higher, as stable compounds in nature. Therefore, investigations of the nonclassical crystallization of M(II)-M(VI) in the biomineralization process could lead to a better understanding of biogeochemical cycles and energy transfer between ions, minerals, and bacteria in different environments. This chapter mainly reviews the nonclassical crystallization behaviors occurring in the biomineralization processes of divalent Ca, Mg, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn cations. First, the divalent cations are discussed in relation to travertine to consider the nonclassical crystallization behaviors of Ca(II) for biomineralization, and second, the nonclassical crystallization behaviors in the biomineralization processes with divalent Sr, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn by plants and microbes are discussed.

Publisher's Statement

© 2020 American Chemical Society. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2020-1358.ch009

Publication Title

ACS Symposium Series