Oleic acid, cholesterol, and linoleic acid as angiogenesis initiators

Document Type


Publication Date



Department of Biomedical Engineering


The current study determined the natural angiogenic molecules using an unbiased metabolomics approach. A chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model was used to examine pro- and antiangiogenic molecules, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. Vessel formation was analyzed quantitatively using the angiogenic index (p < 0.05). At embryonic day one, a white streak or circle area was observed when vessel formation begins. GCMS analysis and database search demonstrated that angiogenesis may initiate when oleic, cholesterol, and linoleic acids increased in the area of angiogenic reactions. The gain of function study was conducted by the injection of cholesterol and oleic acid into a chick embryo to determine the role of each lipid in angiogenesis. We propose that oleic acid, cholesterol, and linoleic acid are natural molecules that set the platform for the initiation stage of angiogenesis before other proteins including the vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin, angiotensin, and erythropoietin join as the angiome in sprout extension and vessel maturation.

Publisher's Statement

Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02850

Publication Title

ACS Omega