Modeling of chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution using modified green-Graphene: RSM-CCD approach, optimization, isotherm, and kinetic studies

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Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geospatial Engineering


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cr (VI) using Green-Graphene Nanosheets (GGN) synthesized from rice straw. Methods: Synthesis of the GGN was optimized using response surface methodology and central composite design (CCD). The effect of two independent variables including KOH-to-raw rice ash (KOH/RRA) ratio and temperature on the specific surface area of the GGN was determined. To have better removal of Cr (VI), GGN was modified using the grafting amine group method. In the Cr (VI) removal process, the effects of four independent variables including initial Cr (VI) concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial solution pH were studied. Results: The results of this study showed that the optimum values of the KOH/RRA ratio and temperature for the preparation of GGN were 10.85 and 749.61 °C, respectively. The maximum amount of SSA obtained at optimum conditions for GGN was 551.14 ± 3.83 m 2 /g. The optimum conditions for Cr (VI) removal were 48.35 mg/L, 1.46 g/L, 44.30 min, and 6.87 for Cr (VI) concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and pH, respectively. Based on variance analysis, the adsorbent dose was the most sensitive factor for Cr (VI) removal. Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.991) and Pseudo-second-order kinetic models (R2 = 0.999) were the best fit for the study results and the Q max was 138.89 mg/g. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the predicted conditions from the GGN synthesis model and the optimum conditions from the Cr (VI) removal model both agreed with the experimental findings.

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© 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00479-8

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Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering