Reflectance spectroscopy-guided broadband spectral derivative approach to detect glauconite-rich zones in fossiliferous limestone, Kachchh region, Gujarat, India

Document Type


Publication Date



Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences


In this study, we processed visible near-infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to delineate glauconite-bearing zones in fossiliferous limestones, Quaternarysediments and Paleogene shales in the Lakhpat. Region of the Kachchh Province in India. Glauconitic limestone has subtle absorption features at 2.3 µm when compared to the absorption features of pure limestones that are dominated by the strong absorption feature of calcite at 2.33 µm. Additionally, the spectrum of glauconite-rich limestone also has an absorption feature at about 0.9 µm due to the crystal field effect of Fe2+ present in the glauconite structure and a feeble spectral feature due to the presence of Al-OH bonds at about 2.2 µm. ASTER resampled reflectance spectra of these rocks have been used as the reference to construct different image-enhanced products. We derived index images and Eigen matrix analysis-based principal components (PCs), using ASTER bands, to delineate different rocks in the study area. These index images are derived to enhance broadband absorption features observed in shales, glauconite-bearing and pure limestones, respectively. Principal component images are prepared using the spectral bands defining the broadband absorption features of these rocks. We found that the PC image composite, derived using PC 8, PC 2 and PC 7, is suitable to discriminate basalts, limestones and shales from each other, while an index image colour composite, prepared using three independent index images, is suitable for the identification of lithological contacts between Quaternary sediments, shales and fossiliferous limestones, respectively. In addition, the ASTER resampled rock spectrum of glauconite has a relatively lower spectral gradient in comparison to the gradient observed in the spectrum of fossiliferous limestone within the spectral range of bands 6 and 8. The spectral derivative images are derived for discriminating glauconite-rich zones within the limestone using the contrast in the spectral gradient of limestone and glauconite-rich limestone. The image composite of three spectral derivatives was compiled from the derivative image of bands 4 to 3, bands 5 to 7, and bands 6 to 8 to discriminate glauconite-rich zones from pure fossiliferous limestone. Our study proposes the potential use of broadband reflectance spectroscopy in the mineral mapping of sedimentary provinces.

Publisher's Statement

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Publisher’s version of record: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2020.103825

Publication Title

Ore Geology Reviews