Automated lithological mapping by integrating spectral enhancement techniques and machine learning algorithms using AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral data in Gold-bearing granite-greenstone rocks in Hutti, India

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Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences


In this study, we proposed an automated lithological mapping approach by using spectral enhancement techniques and Machine Learning Algorithms (MLAs) using Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) hyperspectral data in the greenstone belt of the Hutti area, India. We integrated spectral enhancement techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) transformation and different MLAs for an accurate mapping of rock types. A conjugate utilization of conventional geological map and spectral enhancement products derived from ASTER data were used for the preparation of a high-resolution reference lithology map. Feature selection and extraction methods were applied on the AVIRIS-NG data to derive different input dataset such as (a) all spectral bands, (b) shortwave infrared bands, (c) Joint Mutual Information Maximization (JMIM) based optimum bands, and (d) optimum bands using PCA, to choose optimum input dataset for automated lithological mapping. The comparative analysis of different MLAs shows that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) outperforms other Machine Learning (ML) models. The SVM achieved an Overall Accuracy (OA) and Kappa Coefficient (k) of 85.48% and 0.83, respectively, using JMIM based optimum bands. The JMIM based optimum bands were more suitable than other input datasets to classify most of the lithological units (i.e. metabasalt, amphibolite, granite, acidic intrusive and migmatite) within the study area . The sensitivity analysis performed in this study illustrates that the SVM is less sensitive to the number of samples and mislabeling in the model training than other MLAs. The obtained high-resolution classified map with accurate litho-contacts of amphibolite, metabasalt, and granite can be coupled with an alteration map of the area for targeting the potential zone of gold mineralization.

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International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation