Transformer model for inrush current calculations: Simulations, measurements and sensitivity analysis

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The modeling of inrush currents that occur upon energization of a transformer is a challenge for Electromagnetic Transients Programs due to limitations in available transformer models and the ability to determine and specify initial flux. The estimation of transformer model parameters is also an issue. This paper presents a transformer model for low- and mid-frequency transient studies with a focus on the behavior in saturation and the estimation of residual fluxes. The comparison of the simulation results with analytical calculations and measurements proves the capability of the model to accurately represent energization and de-energization transients of a three-legged-core distribution transformer. A novel property is the ability of auto initialization after disconnection, made possible by the implementation of a hysteretic core model which properly simulates and remembers residual flux from the previous de-energization. Special attention is paid to parameter estimation. Detailed core and winding design data are not used as they are seldom available from the manufacturer. Sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the influence of each parameter on the inrush current envelope curve. It is observed that the parameter that most influences the current amplitude is the slope of the magnetization curve at extreme saturation. © 2010 IEEE.

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IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery