Explaining Explanation, Part 4: A Deep Dive on Deep Nets

Document Type


Publication Date



© 2001-2011 IEEE. This is the fourth in a series of essays about explainable AI. Previous essays laid out the theoretical and empirical foundations. This essay focuses on Deep Nets, and con-siders methods for allowing system users to generate self-explanations. This is accomplished by exploring how the Deep Net systems perform when they are operating at their boundary conditions. Inspired by recent research into adversarial examples that demonstrate the weakness-es of Deep Nets, we invert the purpose of these adversar-ial examples and argue that spoofing can be used as a tool to answer contrastive explanation questions via user-driven exploration.

Publication Title

IEEE Intelligent Systems