Extracellular Matrix Assembly in Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): III. Organization of Fucoglucuronogalactans within the Adhesive Stalks of Achnanthes Iongipes

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Achnanthes Iongipes is a marine, biofouling diatom that adheres to surfaces via adhesive polymers extruded during motility or organized into structures called stalks that contain three distinct regions: the pad, shaft, and collar. Four monoclonal antibodies (AL.C1-AL.C4) and antibodies from two uncloned hybridomas (AL.E1 and AL.E2) were raised against the extracellular adhesives of A. Iongipes. Antibodies were screened against a hot-water-insoluble/ hot-bicarbonate-soluble-fraction. The hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble fraction was fractionated to yield polymers in three size ranges: F1 ≥ 20,000,000 Mr; F2, ≅ 100,000 Mr and F3, < 10,000 Mr relative to dextran standards. The ≅ 100,000-Mr fraction consisted of highly sulfated (approximately 11%) fucoglucuronogalactans (FGGs) and low-sulfate (approximately 2%) FGGs, whereas F1 was composed of O-linked FGG (F2)-polypeptide (F3) complexes. AL.C1, AL.C2, AL.C4, AL.E1, and AL.E2 recognized carbohydrate complementary regions on FGGs, with antigenicity dependent on fucosyl-containing side chains. AL.C3 was unique in that it had a lower affinity for FGGs and did not label any portion of the shaft. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry indicated that low-sulfate FGGs are expelled from pores surrounding the raphe terminus, creating the cylindrical outer layers of the shaft, and that highly sulfated FGGs are extruded from the raphe, forming the central core. Antibody-labeling patterns and other evidence indicated that the shaft central-core region is related to material exuded from the raphe during cell motility.

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Plant Physiology