Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): I. A model of adhesives based on chemical characterization and localization of polysaccharides from the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes and other diatoms
Extracellular adhesives from the diatoms Achnanthes longipes, Amphora coffeaeformis, Cymbella cistula, and Cymhella mexicana were characterized by monosaccharide and methylation analysis, lectin-fluorescein isothiocyanate localization, and cytochemical staining. Polysaccharide was the major component of adhesives formed during cell motility, synthesis of a basal pad, and/or production of a highly organized shaft. Hot water-insoluble/hot 0.5 M NaHCO3-soluble anionic polysaccharides from A. longipes and A. coffeaeformis adhesives were primarily composed of galactosyl (64-70%) and fucosyl (32-42%) residues. In A. longipes polymers, 2,3-, t-, 3-, and 4-linked/substituted galactosyl, t-, 3-, 4-, and 2-linked fucosyl, and t- and 2-linked glucuronic acid residues predominated. Adhesive polysaccharides from C. cistula were EDTA-soluble, sulfated, consisted of 83% galactosyl (4-, 4,6-, and 3,4-linked/substituted) and 13% xylosyl (t-, 4(t)/5(p)-, and 3(p)-linked/substituted) residues, and contained no uronosyl residues. Ulex europaeus agglutinin uniformly localized α(1,2)-L-fucose units in C. cistuta and Achnanthes adhesives formed during motility and in the pads of A. longipes. D-Galactose residues were localized throughout the shafts of C. cistula and capsules of A. coffeaeformis. D-Mannose and/or D-glucose, D-galactose, and α(t)-L-fucose residues were uniformly localized in the outer layers of A. longipes shafts by Cancavalia ensiformis, Abrus precatorius, and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, respectively. A model for diatom cell adhesive structure was developed from chemical characterization, localization, and microscopic observation of extracellular adhesive components formed during the diatom cell-attachment process.
Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): I. A model of adhesives based on chemical characterization and localization of polysaccharides from the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes and other diatoms.
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