Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system: Diseases, treatments, and novel approaches
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) integrates the involuntary physiological activities of visceral organs that are vital for survival. In particular, the ANS controls heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, gastrointestinal contraction and secretion, and electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Many studies have focused on understanding the neural mechanisms of autonomic dysfunction or neuropathy in pathophysiological states including hypertension, heart failure, orthostatic hypotension, stroke, hypoxia, sleep apnea, diabetes, and metabolic disorders. In these diseases and conditions, the function of the ANS is altered, leading to autonomic neuropathy. The effect of autonomic neuropathy ranges from mild to life-threatening. However, the mechanisms of autonomic neuropathy in the pathological states are not well understood and have yet to be elucidated.
Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system: Diseases, treatments, and novel approaches.
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