In February and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The samples were collected on Teflon (Fluoropore) filters with a nominal pore diameter of 0.5μm. The mass of air sampled by the filters ranged from 0.15 to 6.6 kg. The particulate material collected consisted of fragments of angular silicate ash and droplets of what is interpreted as dilute H2SO4 and HCl. After collection of the samples, each filter was rinsed with 60 ml of distilled-deionized water. Splits of each extract were centrifuged to remove particles greater than or equal to 0.1 μm in diameter, acidified, and analyzed for B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Si, Sr, V, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma—optical emission spectroscopy. Separate splits were analyzed for F and Cl by specific-ion-electrode methods and for U by a fission track technique. The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb. These elements represent a subset (with the addition of Cl and F) of elements previously reported enriched in atmospheric aerosols in remote regions as well as in volcanic areas. This suggests that some of the enriched elements were widely dispersed as volatile halides emitted from a volcanic source.
Journal of Geophysical Research
Smith, David B.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Rose, William I.; and Huebert, B. J., "Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds" (1982). Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications. 149.