Restoring oak regeneration after overgrazing and fire in Zagros forests
© 2012 [Copyright Holder]. Publisher’s version of record: https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_nrs-p-102.pdf
Zagros oak forests have a long history of use by local communities. Palynological research provides evidence of stock breeding, grazing, and agriculture at least since the beginning of the fifth millennium cal B.P. (Djamali and others 2009, Sumner 1990, Wright and others 1967). The traditional sustainable management was maintained by a homeorhetic regulation in pre-technological land use (Naveh 1988). This regulation was acquired by a balance between the anthropogenic utilization of the forests for livelihood necessities and stabilizing feedbacks from a lack of food, water, and social components, generating a resource protection mechanism. Resource utilization activities such as coppicing and cultivation were practiced by rotations (Ghazanfari and others 2004). Landscapes maintained a patchwork formed by the combined effects and interaction of fire, grazing, and coppicing.