Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Chemistry


Haiying Liu


“Seeing is believing” the proverb well suits for fluorescent imaging probes. Since we can selectively and sensitively visualize small biomolecules, organelles such as lysosomes, neutral molecules, metal ions, anions through cellular imaging, fluorescent probes can help shed light on the physiological and pathophysiological path ways. Since these biomolecules are produced in low concentrations in the biochemical pathways, general analytical techniques either fail to detect or are not sensitive enough to differentiate the relative concentrations. During my Ph.D. study, I exploited synthetic organic techniques to design and synthesize fluorescent probes with desirable properties such as high water solubility, high sensitivity and with varying fluorescent quantum yields. I synthesized a highly water soluble BOIDPY-based turn-on fluorescent probe for endogenous nitric oxide. I also synthesized a series of cell membrane permeable near infrared (NIR) pH activatable fluorescent probes for lysosomal pH sensing. Fluorescent dyes are molecular tools for designing fluorescent bio imaging probes. This prompted me to design and synthesize a hybrid fluorescent dye with a functionalizable chlorine atom and tested the chlorine re-activity for fluorescent probe design.

Carbohydrate and protein interactions are key for many biological processes, such as viral and bacterial infections, cell recognition and adhesion, and immune response. Among several analytical techniques aimed to study these interactions, electrochemical bio sensing is more efficient due to its low cost, ease of operation, and possibility for miniaturization. During my Ph.D., I synthesized mannose bearing aniline molecule which is successfully tested as electrochemical bio sensor. A Ferrocene-mannose conjugate with an anchoring group is synthesized, which can be used as a potential electrochemical biosensor.