Date of Award

2013

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Advisor

Michael C. Roggemann

DOI

10.37099/mtu.dc.etds/780

Abstract

All optical systems that operate in or through the atmosphere suffer from turbulence induced image blur. Both military and civilian surveillance, gun-sighting, and target identification systems are interested in terrestrial imaging over very long horizontal paths, but atmospheric turbulence can blur the resulting images beyond usefulness. My dissertation explores the performance of a multi-frame-blind-deconvolution technique applied under anisoplanatic conditions for both Gaussian and Poisson noise model assumptions. The technique is evaluated for use in reconstructing images of scenes corrupted by turbulence in long horizontal-path imaging scenarios and compared to other speckle imaging techniques. Performance is evaluated via the reconstruction of a common object from three sets of simulated turbulence degraded imagery representing low, moderate and severe turbulence conditions. Each set consisted of 1000 simulated, turbulence degraded images. The MSE performance of the estimator is evaluated as a function of the number of images, and the number of Zernike polynomial terms used to characterize the point spread function.

I will compare the mean-square-error (MSE) performance of speckle imaging methods and a maximum-likelihood, multi-frame blind deconvolution (MFBD) method applied to long-path horizontal imaging scenarios. Both methods are used to reconstruct a scene from simulated imagery featuring anisoplanatic turbulence induced aberrations. This comparison is performed over three sets of 1000 simulated images each for low, moderate and severe turbulence-induced image degradation. The comparison shows that speckle-imaging techniques reduce the MSE 46 percent, 42 percent and 47 percent on average for low, moderate, and severe cases, respectively using 15 input frames under daytime conditions and moderate frame rates. Similarly, the MFBD method provides, 40 percent, 29 percent, and 36 percent improvements in MSE on average under the same conditions. The comparison is repeated under low light conditions (less than 100 photons per pixel) where improvements of 39 percent, 29 percent and 27 percent are available using speckle imaging methods and 25 input frames and 38 percent, 34 percent and 33 percent respectively for the MFBD method and 150 input frames. The MFBD estimator is applied to three sets of field data and the results presented. Finally, a combined Bispectrum-MFBD Hybrid estimator is proposed and investigated. This technique consistently provides a lower MSE and smaller variance in the estimate under all three simulated turbulence conditions.

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