Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering Physics (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Physics


Kim Fook Lee


Jacek Borysow


This dissertation presents a detailed study in exploring quantum correlations of lights in macroscopic environments. We have explored quantum correlations of single photons, weak coherent states, and polarization-correlated/polarization-entangled photons in macroscopic environments. These included macroscopic mirrors, macroscopic photon number, spatially separated observers, noisy photons source and propagation medium with loss or disturbances.

We proposed a measurement scheme for observing quantum correlations and entanglement in the spatial properties of two macroscopic mirrors using single photons spatial compass state. We explored the phase space distribution features of spatial compass states, such as chessboard pattern by using the Wigner function. The displacement and tilt correlations of the two mirrors were manifested through the propensities of the compass states. This technique can be used to extract Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations (EPR) of the two mirrors. We then formulated the discrete-like property of the propensity Pb(m,n), which can be used to explore environmental perturbed quantum jumps of the EPR correlations in phase space. With single photons spatial compass state, the variances in position and momentum are much smaller than standard quantum limit when using a Gaussian TEM00 beam.

We observed intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states between two parties through balanced homodyne detection. Our scheme can be used as a supplement to decoy-state BB84 protocol and differential phase-shift QKD protocol. We prepared four types of bipartite correlations ±cos2(θ12) that shared between two parties. We also demonstrated bits correlations between two parties separated by 10 km optical fiber. The bits information will be protected by the large quantum phase fluctuation of weak coherent states, adding another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution.

Using 10 m of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) at 77 K, we observed coincidence to accidental-coincidence ratio of 130±5 for correlated photon-pair and Two-Photon Interference visibility >98% entangled photon-pair. We also verified the non-local behavior of polarization-entangled photon pair by violating Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell’s inequality by more than 12 standard deviations. With the HNLF at 300 K (77 K), photon-pair production rate about factor 3(2) higher than a 300 m dispersion-shifted fiber is observed. Then, we studied quantum correlation and interference of photon-pairs; with one photon of the photon-air experiencing multiple scattering in a random medium. We observed that depolarization noise photon in multiple scattering degrading the purity of photon-pair, and the existence of Raman noise photon in a photon-pair source will contribute to the depolarization affect. We found that quantum correlation of polarization-entangled photon-pair is better preserved than polarization-correlated photon-pair as one photon of the photon-pair scattered through a random medium. Our findings showed that high purity polarization-entangled photon-pair is better candidate for long distance quantum key distribution.