Date of Award


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MS)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics


Jeff D Naber


John H Johnson


Active regeneration experiments were carried out on a production 2007 Cummins 8.9L ISL engine and associated DOC and CPF aftertreatment system. The effects of SME biodiesel blends were investigated in this study in order to determine the PM oxidation kinetics associated with active regeneration, and to determine the effect of biodiesel on them. The experimental data from this study will also be used to calibrate the MTU-1D CPF model. Accurately predicting the PM mass retained in the CPF and the oxidation characteristics will provide the basis for computation in the ECU that will minimize the fuel penalty associated with active regeneration.

An active regeneration test procedure was developed based on previous experimentation at MTU. During each experiment, the PM mass in the CPF is determined by weighing the filter at various phases. In addition, DOC and CPF pressure drop, particle size distribution, gaseous emissions, temperature, and PM concentration data are collected and recorded throughout each experiment. The experiments covered a range of CPF inlet temperatures using ULSD, B10, and B20 blends of biodiesel. The majority of the tests were performed at CPF PM loading of 2.2 g/L with in-cylinder dosing, although 4.1 g/L and a post-turbo dosing injector were also used. The PM oxidation characteristics at different test conditions were studied in order to determine the effects of biodiesel on PM oxidation during active regeneration.

A PM reaction rate calculation method was developed to determine the global activation energy and the corresponding pre-exponential factor for all test fuels. The changing sum of the total flow resistance of the wall, cake, and channels was also determined as part of the data analysis process in order to check on the integrity of the data and to correct input data to be consistent with the expected trends of the resistance based on the engine conditions used in the test procedure.

It was determined that increasing the percent biodiesel content in the test fuel tends to increase the PM reaction rate and the regeneration efficiency of fuel dosing, i.e., at a constant CPF inlet temperature, B20 test fuel resulted in the highest PM reaction rate and regeneration efficiency of fuel dosing. Increasing the CPF inlet temperature also increases PM reaction rate and regeneration efficiency of fuel dosing. Performing active regeneration with B20 as opposed to ULSD allows for a lower CPF temperature to be used to reach the same level of regeneration efficiency, or it allows for a shorter regeneration time at a constant CPF temperature, resulting in decreased fuel consumption for the engine during active regeneration in either scenario.