Date of Award


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MS)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics


John H Johnson


The emissions, filtration and oxidation characteristics of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey catalyzed continuously regenerating trap (CCRT ®) were studied by using computational models. Experimental data needed to calibrate the models were obtained by characterization experiments with raw exhaust sampling from a Cummins ISM 2002 engine with variable geometry turbocharging (VGT) and programmed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experiments were performed at 20, 40, 60 and 75% of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm), with and without the DOC upstream of the CPF. This was done to study the effect of temperature and CPF-inlet NO2 concentrations on particulate matter oxidation in the CCRT ®.

A previously developed computational model was used to determine the kinetic parameters describing the oxidation characteristics of HCs, CO and NO in the DOC and the pressure drop across it. The model was calibrated at five temperatures in the range of 280 – 465° C, and exhaust volumetric flow rates of 0.447 – 0.843 act-m3/sec. The downstream HCs, CO and NO concentrations were predicted by the DOC model to within ±3 ppm. The HCs and CO oxidation kinetics in the temperature range of 280 - 465°C and an exhaust volumetric flow rate of 0.447 - 0.843 act-m3/sec can be represented by one ’apparent’ activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The NO oxidation kinetics in the same temperature and exhaust flow rate range can be represented by ’apparent’ activation energies and pre-exponential factors in two regimes. The DOC pressure drop was always predicted within 0.5 kPa by the model.

The MTU 1-D 2-layer CPF model was enhanced in several ways to better model the performance of the CCRT ®. A model to simulate the oxidation of particulate inside the filter wall was developed. A particulate cake layer filtration model which describes particle filtration in terms of more fundamental parameters was developed and coupled to the wall oxidation model. To better model the particulate oxidation kinetics, a model to take into account the NO2 produced in the washcoat of the CPF was developed. The overall 1-D 2-layer model can be used to predict the pressure drop of the exhaust gas across the filter, the evolution of particulate mass inside the filter, the particulate mass oxidized, the filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the CPF. The model was used to better understand the internal performance of the CCRT®, by determining the components of the total pressure drop across the filter, by classifying the total particulate matter in layer I, layer II, the filter wall, and by the means of oxidation i.e. by O2, NO2 entering the filter and by NO2 being produced in the filter.

The CPF model was calibrated at four temperatures in the range of 280 – 465 °C, and exhaust volumetric flow rates of 0.447 – 0.843 act-m3/sec, in CPF-only and CCRT ® (DOC+CPF) configurations. The clean filter wall permeability was determined to be 2.00E-13 m2, which is in agreement with values in the literature for cordierite filters. The particulate packing density in the filter wall had values between 2.92 kg/m3 - 3.95 kg/m3 for all the loads. The mean pore size of the catalyst loaded filter wall was found to be 11.0 µm. The particulate cake packing densities and permeabilities, ranged from 131 kg/m3 - 134 kg/m3, and 0.42E-14 m2 and 2.00E-14 m2 respectively, and are in agreement with the Peclet number correlations in the literature. Particulate cake layer porosities determined from the particulate cake layer filtration model ranged between 0.841 and 0.814 and decreased with load, which is about 0.1 lower than experimental and more complex discrete particle simulations in the literature. The thickness of layer I was kept constant at 20 µm. The model kinetics in the CPF-only and CCRT ® configurations, showed that no ’catalyst effect’ with O2 was present. The kinetic parameters for the NO2-assisted oxidation of particulate in the CPF were determined from the simulation of transient temperature programmed oxidation data in the literature. It was determined that the thermal and NO2 kinetic parameters do not change with temperature, exhaust flow rate or NO2 concentrations. However, different kinetic parameters are used for particulate oxidation in the wall and on the wall.

Model results showed that oxidation of particulate in the pores of the filter wall can cause disproportionate decreases in the filter pressure drop with respect to particulate mass. The wall oxidation model along with the particulate cake filtration model were developed to model the sudden and rapid decreases in pressure drop across the CPF. The particulate cake and wall filtration models result in higher particulate filtration efficiencies than with just the wall filtration model, with overall filtration efficiencies of 98-99% being predicted by the model. The pre-exponential factors for oxidation by NO2 did not change with temperature or NO2 concentrations because of the NO2 wall production model. In both CPF-only and CCRT ® configurations, the model showed NO2 and layer I to be the dominant means and dominant physical location of particulate oxidation respectively. However, at temperatures of 280 °C, NO2 is not a significant oxidizer of particulate matter, which is in agreement with studies in the literature. The model showed that 8.6 and 81.6% of the CPF-inlet particulate matter was oxidized after 5 hours at 20 and 75% load in CCRT® configuration. In CPF-only configuration at the same loads, the model showed that after 5 hours, 4.4 and 64.8% of the inlet particulate matter was oxidized. The increase in NO2 concentrations across the DOC contributes significantly to the oxidation of particulate in the CPF and is supplemented by the oxidation of NO to NO2 by the catalyst in the CPF, which increases the particulate oxidation rates. From the model, it was determined that the catalyst in the CPF modeslty increases the particulate oxidation rates in the range of 4.5 – 8.3% in the CCRT® configuration. Hence, the catalyst loading in the CPF of the CCRT® could possibly be reduced without significantly decreasing particulate oxidation rates leading to catalyst cost savings and better engine performance due to lower exhaust backpressures.