Performance evaluation and characterization of symmetric capacitors with carbon black, and asymmetric capacitors using a carbon foam supported nickel electrode
Date of Award
Master of Science in Chemistry (MS)
College, School or Department Name
Department of Chemistry
Bahne C Cornilsen
This thesis evaluates a novel asymmetric capacitor incorporating a carbon foam supported nickel hydroxide positive electrode and a carbon black negative electrode. A series of symmetric capacitors were prepared to characterize the carbon black (CB) negative electrode. The influence of the binder, PTFE, content on the cell properties was evaluated. X-ray diffraction characterization of the nickel electrode during cycling is also presented.
The 3 wt% and 5 wt% PTFE/CB symmetric cells were examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and constant current charge/discharge measurements. As compared with symmetric cells containing more PTFE, the 3 wt% cell has the highest average specific capacitance, energy density and power density over 300 cycles, 121.8 F/g, 6.44 Wh/kg, and 604.1 W/kg, respectively. Over the 3 to 10 wt% PTFE/CB range, the 3 wt% sample exhibited the lowest effective resistance and the highest BET surface area.
Three asymmetric cells (3 wt% PTFE/CB negative electrode and a nickel positive) were fabricated; cycle life was examined at 3 current densities. The highest average energy and power densities over 1000 cycles were 20 Wh/kg (21 mA/cm2) and 715 W/kg (31 mA/cm2), respectively. The longest cycle life was 11,505 cycles (at 8 mA/cm2), with an average efficiency of 79% and an average energy density of 14 Wh/kg.
The XRD results demonstrate that the cathodically deposited nickel electrode is a typical α-Ni(OH)2 with the R3m structure (ABBCCA stacking); the charged electrodes are 3γ-NiOOH with the same stacking as the α-type; the discharged electrodes (including as-formed electrode) are aged to β’-Ni(OH)2 (a disordered β) with the P3m structure (ABAB stacking). A 3γ remnant was observed.
Wang, JinJin, "Performance evaluation and characterization of symmetric capacitors with carbon black, and asymmetric capacitors using a carbon foam supported nickel electrode", Master's Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 2012.