Date of Award


Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science in Geology (MS)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences


John S Gierke


Due to their relatively high calcium oxide content, industrial mineral oxide wastes are potential candidates for mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Cement kiln dust (CKD), a byproduct of cement manufacturing contains 20-60% CaO making it a possible candidate for CO2 sequestration. In this study, three types of CKD are characterized, before and after carbonation, using environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to determine the mineralogical and morphological changes occurring due to carbonation. The reactants, products, and precipitation mechanisms were investigated to enhance understanding of the governing processes and allow better utilization of CKD for CO2 sequestration. The results of multiple independent analyses confirmed the formation of CaCO3 during carbonation. Examinations of the reaction pathways found that CaO and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) were the major reactants. Three types of CaCO3 precipitation mechanisms were observed: (1) diffusion of CO2 into Ca(OH)2 particles causing precipitation in the pores of the particle and the growth of a CaCO3 ring from the outside inward, (2) precipitation onto existing particles, and (3) precipitation from aqueous solution. The growth of a CaCO3 ring on the outside of a particle may slow further diffusion of CO2 into a particle slowing iv the overall sequestration rate. Additionally, changes caused by carbonation in the solubility of trace metals were studied by mixing pre- and post-carbonated CKD with water and analyzing the solution using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Decreases in the leaching of chromium, lead, and copper were observed, and is an incentive for use of CKD for CO2 sequestration. Equilibrium modeling using PHREEQC confirmed that CaO and Ca(OH)2 would carbonate readily and form CaCO3.

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