Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Civil Engineering (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering


Zhanping You


Traditionally, asphalt mixtures were produced at high temperatures (between 150°C to 180°C) and therefore often referred to as Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). Recently, a new technology named Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) was developed in Europe that allows HMA to be produced at a lower temperature. Over years of research efforts, a few WMA technologies were introduced including the foaming method using Aspha-min® and Advera® WMA; organic additives such as Sasobit® and Asphaltan B®; and chemical packages such as Evotherm® and Cecabase RT®. Benefits were found when lower temperatures were used to produce asphalt mixtures, especially when it comes to environmental and energy savings. Even though WMA has shown promising results in energy savings and emission reduction, however, only limited studies and laboratory tests have been conducted to date. The objectives of this project are to 1) develop a mix design framework for WMA by evaluating its mechanical properties; 2) evaluate performance of WMA containing high percentages of recycled asphalt material; and 3) evaluate the moisture sensitivity in WMA.

The test results show that most of the WMA has higher fatigue life and TSR which indicated WMA has better fatigue cracking and moisture damage resistant; however, the rutting potential of most of the WMA tested were higher than the control HMA. A recommended WMA mix design framework was developed as well. The WMA design framework was presented in this study to provide contractors, and government agencies successfully design WMA.

Mixtures containing high RAP and RAS were studied as well and the overall results show that WMA technology allows the mixture containing high RAP content and RAS to be produced at lower temperature (up to 35°C lower) without significantly affect the performance of asphalt mixture in terms of rutting, fatigue and moisture susceptibility.

Lastly, the study also found that by introducing the hydrated lime in the WMA, all mixtures modified by the hydrated lime passed the minimum requirement of 0.80. This indicated that, the moisture susceptibility of the WMA can be improved by adding the hydrated lime.