Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy in Computational Science and Engineering (PhD)
College, School or Department Name
Department of Computer Science
Steven M Carr
With increasing demands for performance by embedded systems, especially by digital signal processing (DSP) applications, embedded processors must increase available instructionlevel parallelism (ILP) within significant constraints on power consumption and chip cost. Unfortunately, supporting a large amount of ILP on a processor while maintaining a single register file increases chip cost and potentially decreases overall performance due to increased cycle time. To address this problem, some modern embedded processors partition the register file into multiple low-ported register files, each directly connected with one or more functional units. These functional unit/register file groups are called clusters.
Clustered VLIW (very long instruction word) architectures need extra copy operations or delays to transfer values among clusters. To take advantage of clustered architectures, the compiler must expose parallelism for maximal functional-unit utilization, and schedule instructions to reduce intercluster communication overhead.
High-level loop transformations offer an excellent opportunity to enhance the abilities of low-level optimizers to generate code for clustered architectures. This dissertation investigates the effects of three loop transformations, i.e., loop fusion, loop unrolling, and unroll-and-jam, on clustered VLIW architectures. The objective is to achieve high performance with low communication overhead. This dissertation discusses the following techniques:
Loop Fusion This research examines the impact of loop fusion on clustered architectures. A metric based upon communication costs for guiding loop fusion is developed and tested on DSP benchmarks.
Unroll-and-jam and Loop Unrolling A new method that integrates a communication cost model with an integer-optimization problem is developed to determine unroll amounts for loop unrolling and unroll-and-jam automatically for a specific loop on a specific architecture. These techniques have been implemented and tested using DSP benchmarks on simulated, clustered VLIW architectures and a real clustered, embedded processor, the TI TMS320C64X. The results show that the new techniques achieve an average speedup of 1.72-1.89 on five different clustered architectures.
These techniques have been implemented and tested using DSP benchmarks on simulated, clustered VLIW architectures and a real clustered, embedded processor, the TI TMS320C64X. The results show that the new techniques achieve an average speedup of 1.72-1.89 on five different clustered architectures.
Qian, Yi, "Loop transformations for clustered VLIW architectures", Dissertation, Michigan Technological University, 2002.