Off-campus Michigan Tech users: To download campus access theses or dissertations, please use the following button to log in with your Michigan Tech ID and password: log in to proxy server

Non-Michigan Tech users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.

Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (PhD)

Administrative Home Department

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Advisor 1

Sumit Paudyal

Committee Member 1

Lucia Gauchia

Committee Member 2

Seyed A. (Reza) Zekavat

Committee Member 3

Mahdi Shahbakhti


The conventional philosophy of controlling large generators for grid services is changing. With the distributed and flexible loads at customer end, same grid services can be achieved through the aggregation and control of customers' flexible loads. However, this comes with inherent computational challenges in dispatching the distributed flexible resources. A centralized approach to solve this problem could be computationally involving and may jeopardize customers' privacy. Therefore, in this dissertation, a Hierarchical Framework to facilitate the dispatch of flexible loads in coordination with the operational constraints of power grid is developed. The developed hierarchical control framework consists of detailed mathematical modeling of distribution system components, electrical vehicles (EVs), heating ventilation and air conditioner (HVAC) of commercial buildings, and their operational constraints. Two example frameworks: Vehicle to grid (V2G) and Building to grid (B2G) are developed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. The case studies demonstrate that the V2G and B2G framework provide optimal demand response and load following services from the aggregation of EVs and buildings while honoring the operational constraints of the grid. The developed frameworks benefits both: the customers and the grid operations.