Date of Award
Open Access Dissertation
Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (PhD)
Administrative Home Department
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Timothy C. Havens
Committee Member 1
Committee Member 2
Committee Member 3
The work collected in this dissertation addresses the problem of data fusion. In other words, this is the problem of making decisions (also known as the problem of classification in the machine learning and statistics communities) when data from multiple sources are available, or when decisions/confidence levels from a panel of decision-makers are accessible. This problem has become increasingly important in recent years, especially with the ever-increasing popularity of autonomous systems outfitted with suites of sensors and the dawn of the ``age of big data.'' While data fusion is a very broad topic, the work in this dissertation considers two very specific techniques: feature-level fusion and decision-level fusion. In general, the fusion methods proposed throughout this dissertation rely on kernel methods and fuzzy integrals. Both are very powerful tools, however, they also come with challenges, some of which are summarized below. I address these challenges in this dissertation.
Kernel methods for classification is a well-studied area in which data are implicitly mapped from a lower-dimensional space to a higher-dimensional space to improve classification accuracy. However, for most kernel methods, one must still choose a kernel to use for the problem. Since there is, in general, no way of knowing which kernel is the best, multiple kernel learning (MKL) is a technique used to learn the aggregation of a set of valid kernels into a single (ideally) superior kernel. The aggregation can be done using weighted sums of the pre-computed kernels, but determining the summation weights is not a trivial task. Furthermore, MKL does not work well with large datasets because of limited storage space and prediction speed. These challenges are tackled by the introduction of many new algorithms in the following chapters. I also address MKL's storage and speed drawbacks, allowing MKL-based techniques to be applied to big data efficiently.
Some algorithms in this work are based on the Choquet fuzzy integral, a powerful nonlinear aggregation operator parameterized by the fuzzy measure (FM). These decision-level fusion algorithms learn a fuzzy measure by minimizing a sum of squared error (SSE) criterion based on a set of training data. The flexibility of the Choquet integral comes with a cost, however---given a set of N decision makers, the size of the FM the algorithm must learn is 2N. This means that the training data must be diverse enough to include 2N independent observations, though this is rarely encountered in practice. I address this in the following chapters via many different regularization functions, a popular technique in machine learning and statistics used to prevent overfitting and increase model generalization. Finally, it is worth noting that the aggregation behavior of the Choquet integral is not intuitive. I tackle this by proposing a quantitative visualization strategy allowing the FM and Choquet integral behavior to be shown simultaneously.
Pinar, Tony, "Feature and Decision Level Fusion Using Multiple Kernel Learning and Fuzzy Integrals", Open Access Dissertation, Michigan Technological University, 2017.