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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Bruce Mork


Power transformers are key components of the power grid and are also one of the most subjected to a variety of power system transients. The failure of a large transformer can cause severe monetary losses to a utility, thus adequate protection schemes are of great importance to avoid transformer damage and maximize the continuity of service.

Computer modeling can be used as an efficient tool to improve the reliability of a transformer protective relay application. Unfortunately, transformer models presently available in commercial software lack completeness in the representation of several aspects such as internal winding faults, which is a common cause of transformer failure. It is also important to adequately represent the transformer at frequencies higher than the power frequency for a more accurate simulation of switching transients since these are a well known cause for the unwanted tripping of protective relays.

This work develops new capabilities for the Hybrid Transformer Model (XFMR) implemented in ATPDraw to allow the representation of internal winding faults and slow-front transients up to 10 kHz. The new model can be developed using any of two sources of information: 1) test report data and 2) design data. When only test-report data is available, a higher-order leakage inductance matrix is created from standard measurements. If design information is available, a Finite Element Model is created to calculate the leakage parameters for the higher-order model. An analytical model is also implemented as an alternative to FEM modeling. Measurements on 15-kVA 240?/208Y V and 500-kVA 11430Y/235Y V distribution transformers were performed to validate the model. A transformer model that is valid for simulations for frequencies above the power frequency was developed after continuing the division of windings into multiple sections and including a higher-order capacitance matrix. Frequency-scan laboratory measurements were used to benchmark the simulations. Finally, a stability analysis of the higher-order model was made by analyzing the trapezoidal rule for numerical integration as used in ATP. Numerical damping was also added to suppress oscillations locally when discontinuities occurred in the solution.

A maximum error magnitude of 7.84% was encountered in the simulated currents for different turn-to-ground and turn-to-turn faults. The FEM approach provided the most accurate means to determine the leakage parameters for the ATP model. The higher-order model was found to reproduce the short-circuit impedance acceptably up to about 10 kHz and the behavior at the first anti-resonant frequency was better matched with the measurements.