Off-campus Michigan Tech users: To download campus access theses or dissertations, please use the following button to log in with your Michigan Tech ID and password: log in to proxy server
Non-Michigan Tech users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this thesis or dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Date of Award
Master of Science in Physics (MS)
College, School or Department Name
Department of Physics
In this report we will investigate the effect of negative energy density in a classic Friedmann cosmology. Although never measured and possibly unphysical, the evolution of a Universe containing a significant cosmological abundance of any of a number of hypothetical stable negative energy components is explored. These negative energy (Ω < 0) forms include negative phantom energy (w<-1), negative cosmological constant (w=-1), negative domain walls (w=-2/3), negative cosmic strings (w= -1/3), negative mass (w=0), negative radiation (w=1/3), and negative ultra-light (w > 1/3). Assuming that such universe components generate pressures as perfect fluids, the attractive or repulsive nature of each negative energy component is reviewed. The Friedmann equations can only be balanced when negative energies are coupled to a greater magnitude of positive energy or positive curvature, and minimal cases of both of these are reviewed. The future and fate of such universes in terms of curvature, temperature, acceleration, and energy density are reviewed including endings categorized as a Big Crunch, Big Void, or Big Rip and further qualified as "Warped", "Curved", or "Flat", "Hot" versus "Cold", "Accelerating" versus" Decelerating" versus "Coasting". A universe that ends by contracting to zero energy density is termed a Big Poof. Which contracting universes ``bounce" in expansion and which expanding universes ``turnover" into contraction are also reviewed. The name by which the ending of the Universe is mentioned is our own nomenclature.
Joshi, Ravi, "ADVENTURES IN FRIEDMANN COSMOLOGIES---INTERACTION OF POSITIVE ENERGY DENSITIES WITH NEGATIVE ENERGY DENSITIES AND CURVATURE OF THE UNIVERSE", Master's report, Michigan Technological University, 2013.