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Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Geophysics (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences

First Advisor

Gregory P Waite


Measuring shallow seismic sources provides a way to reveal processes that cannot be directly observed, but the correct interpretation and value of these signals depend on the ability to distinguish source from propagation effects. Furthermore, seismic signals produced by a resonating source can look almost identical to those produced by impulsive sources, but modified along the path. Distinguishing these two phenomena can be accomplished by examining the wavefield with small aperture arrays or by recording seismicity near to the source when possible. We examine source and path effects in two different environments: Bering Glacier, Alaska and Villarrica Volcano, Chile. Using three 3-element seismic arrays near the terminus of the Bering Glacier, we have identified and located both terminus calving and iceberg breakup events. We show that automated array analysis provided a robust way to locate icequake events using P waves. This analysis also showed that arrivals within the long-period codas were incoherent within the small aperture arrays, demonstrating that these codas previously attributed to crack resonance were in fact a result of a complicated path rather than a source effect.

At Villarrica Volcano, seismometers deployed from near the vent to ~10 km revealed that a several cycle long-period source signal recorded at the vent appeared elongated in the far-field. We used data collected from the stations nearest to the vent to invert for the repetitive seismic source, and found it corresponded to a shallow force within the lava lake oriented N75°E and dipping 7° from horizontal. We also used this repetitive signal to search the data for additional seismic and infrasonic properties which included calculating seismic-acoustic delay times, volcano acoustic-seismic ratios and energies, event frequency, and real-time seismic amplitude measurements. These calculations revealed lava lake level and activity fluctuations consistent with lava lake level changes inferred from the persistent infrasonic tremor.