The effects of various music on angry drivers' subjective, behavioral, and physiological states

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Emotions influence the way drivers process and react to internal or environmental factors. Specifically, anger is a serious threat on the road. While driving, a majority of drivers listen to music, which is quite an emotional stimulus. In this study, we investigated the effects of various types of music (happy, sad, and self-selected music) on angry drivers in a simulated driving. Sixty-one participants were randomly assigned in five groups: angry drivers who drove with self-selected music, angry drivers with happy music, angry drivers with sad music, angry drivers without music, and neutral drivers without music as a baseline. Three levels of outcomes (subjective, behavioral and physiological data) were analyzed. Emotion induction was successful, but no specific emotional music significantly influenced their subjective affect ratings. Angry drivers with self-selected music showed more aggressive driving behavior. Sad music increased drivers' heart rate more. Implications are discussed with emotion intervention systems.

Publisher's Statement

ACM New York, NY, USA ©2016. Publisher's version of record: https://doi.org/10.1145/3004323.3004346

Publication Title

Adjunct Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications