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Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is the second most widely produced millet with potential as a biofuel source. Employment of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and mycorrhiza could serve as environment-friendly alternatives for the use of excessive NPK fertilizers and producing biofuel. The highest increase of biomass was associated with endomycorrhiza combined with PGPB in comparison to control. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis detected 28 metabolites in foxtail shoot with most of them upregulated in ecto/endomycorrhiza group and combined with PGPB. The upregulation of metabolites associated with synthesis of amino acids correlated positively with biomass. The inoculation with both PGPB and endomycorrhiza gave the best results with reference to total sugar yield. Our study indicates that PGPB and endomycorrhiza combination is well suited for enhancing biomass and boosting sugar yield, which are useful attributes for utilizing foxtail millet as a biofuel source.

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© The Authors 2018. Publisher’s version of record:

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Communications in Plant Sciences

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


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