The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10–12 μm) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65°N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6–65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in a “side-looking” aspect and longer path lengths through the volcanic cloud. The shape of the cloud with respect to the GOES look angle also influences the results. The MODIS and AVHRR data give consistent retrievals of the ash cloud evolution over time and are good corrections for the GOES data.
Gu, Yingxin; Rose, William I.; Schneider, David J.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; and Watson, M. I., "Advantageous GOES IR results for ash mapping at high latitudes: Cleveland eruptions 2001" (2005). Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Publications. 44.