Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Biomedical Engineering (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Biomedical Engineering


Keat Ghee Ong


The objective of the work described in this dissertation is the development of new wireless passive force monitoring platforms for applications in the medical field, specifically monitoring lower limb prosthetics. The developed sensors consist of stress sensitive, magnetically soft amorphous metallic glass materials. The first technology is based on magnetoelastic resonance. Specifically, when exposed to an AC excitation field along with a constant DC bias field, the magnetoelastic material mechanically vibrates, and may reaches resonance if the field frequency matches the mechanical resonant frequency of the material. The presented work illustrates that an applied loading pins portions of the strip, effectively decreasing the strip length, which results in an increase in the frequency of the resonance. The developed technology is deployed in a prototype lower limb prosthetic sleeve for monitoring forces experienced by the distal end of the residuum. This work also reports on the development of a magnetoharmonic force sensor comprised of the same material. According to the Villari effect, an applied loading to the material results in a change in the permeability of the magnetic sensor which is visualized as an increase in the higher-order harmonic fields of the material. Specifically, by applying a constant low frequency AC field and sweeping the applied DC biasing field, the higher-order harmonic components of the magnetic response can be visualized. This sensor technology was also instrumented onto a lower limb prosthetic for proof of deployment; however, the magnetoharmonic sensor illustrated complications with sensor positioning and a necessity to tailor the interface mechanics between the sensing material and the surface being monitored. The novelty of these two technologies is in their wireless passive nature which allows for long term monitoring over the life time of a given device. Additionally, the developed technologies are low cost. Recommendations for future works include improving the system for real-time monitoring, useful for data collection outside of a clinical setting.