Date of Award

2013

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering–Engineering Mechanics (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Advisor

John H Johnson

Co-Advisor

Song-Lin Yang

Abstract

Back-pressure on a diesel engine equipped with an aftertreatment system is a function of the pressure drop across the individual components of the aftertreatment system, typically, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Pressure drop across the CPF is a function of the mass flow rate and the temperature of the exhaust flowing through it as well as the mass of particulate matter (PM) retained in the substrate wall and the cake layer that forms on the substrate wall. Therefore, in order to control the back-pressure on the engine at low levels and to minimize the fuel consumption, it is important to control the PM mass retained in the CPF. Chemical reactions involving the oxidation of PM under passive oxidation and active regeneration conditions can be utilized with computer numerical models in the engine control unit (ECU) to control the pressure drop across the CPF. Hence, understanding and predicting the filtration and oxidation of PM in the CPF and the effect of these processes on the pressure drop across the CPF are necessary for developing control strategies for the aftertreatment system to reduce back-pressure on the engine and in turn fuel consumption particularly from active regeneration. Numerical modeling of CPF's has been proven to reduce development time and the cost of aftertreatment systems used in production as well as to facilitate understanding of the internal processes occurring during different operating conditions that the particulate filter is subjected to. A numerical model of the CPF was developed in this research work which was calibrated to data from passive oxidation and active regeneration experiments in order to determine the kinetic parameters for oxidation of PM and nitrogen oxides along with the model filtration parameters. The research results include the comparison between the model and the experimental data for pressure drop, PM mass retained, filtration efficiencies, CPF outlet gas temperatures and species (NO2) concentrations out of the CPF. Comparisons of PM oxidation reaction rates obtained from the model calibration to the data from the experiments for ULSD, 10 and 20% biodiesel-blended fuels are presented.

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