Date of Award

2013

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering–Engineering Mechanics (PhD)

College, School or Department Name

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Advisor

Gordon G Parker

Co-Advisor

John H Johnson

Abstract

Estimating un-measurable states is an important component for onboard diagnostics (OBD) and control strategy development in diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. This research focuses on the development of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based state estimator for two of the main components in a diesel engine aftertreatment system: the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst. One of the key areas of interest is the performance of these estimators when the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is being actively regenerated.

In this study, model reduction techniques were developed and used to develop reduced order models from the 1D models used to simulate the DOC and SCR. As a result of order reduction, the number of states in the estimator is reduced from 12 to 1 per element for the DOC and 12 to 2 per element for the SCR. The reduced order models were simulated on the experimental data and compared to the high fidelity model and the experimental data. The results show that the effect of eliminating the heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients are not significant on the performance of the reduced order models. This is shown by an insignificant change in the kinetic parameters between the reduced order and 1D model for simulating the experimental data.

An EKF based estimator to estimate the internal states of the DOC and SCR was developed. The DOC and SCR estimators were simulated on the experimental data to show that the estimator provides improved estimation of states compared to a reduced order model. The results showed that using the temperature measurement at the DOC outlet improved the estimates of the CO , NO , NO2 and HC concentrations from the DOC. The SCR estimator was used to evaluate the effect of NH3 and NOX sensors on state estimation quality. Three sensor combinations of NOX sensor only, NH3 sensor only and both NOX and NH3 sensors were evaluated. The NOX only configuration had the worst performance, the NH3 sensor only configuration was in the middle and both the NOX and NH3 sensor combination provided the best performance.

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