Date of Award
Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MS)
College, School or Department Name
Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
John H Johnson
Jeffrey Donald Naber
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) and 317 kW (425 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within an aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The tests conducted with the engine rated at 365 hp used a 2007 DOC and CPF. The tests conducted with the engine rated at 425 hp used a 2010 DOC and 2007 CPF. Understanding the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties.
Modeling the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF will lead to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine, and when the engine is operated at a higher power rating.
A test procedure developed by Hutton et al. [1, 2] was modified to improve the ability to model the experimental data and provide additional insight into passively oxidized PM in a partially regenerated CPF. A test procedure was developed to allow PM oxidation rates by NO2 to be determined from engine test cell data. An experimental matrix consisting of CPF inlet temperatures from 250 to 450 °C with varying NOX/PM from 25 to 583and NO2/PM ratios from 5 to 240 was used.
SME biodiesel was volumetrically blended with ULSD in 10% (B10) and 20% (B20) portions. This blended fuel was then used to evaluate the effect of biodiesel on passive oxidation rates. Four tests were performed with B10 and four tests with B20. Gathering data to determine the effect of fuel type (ULSD and biodiesel blends) on PM oxidation is the primary goal.
The engine used for this testing was then configured to a higher power rating and one of the tests planned was performed. Additional testing is scheduled to take place with ULSD fuel to determine the affect the engine rating has on the PM oxidation.
The experimental reaction rates during passive oxidation varied based upon the average CPF temperature, NO2 concentrations, and the NOX/PM ratios for each engine rating and with all fuels. The data analysis requires a high fidelity model that includes NO2 and thermal oxidation mechanisms and back diffusion to determine the details of the PM oxidation process.
Shiel, Kenneth L., "Study of the effect of biodiesel fuel on passive oxidation in a catalyzed particulate filter", Master's Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 2012.