Study on the feasibility of universal chip control in machining

Thimmaiah Kumbera Ganapathi, Michigan Technological University

Abstract

A novel solution to the long standing issue of chip entanglement and breakage in metal cutting is presented in this dissertation. Through this work, an attempt is made to achieve universal chip control in machining by using chip guidance and subsequent breakage by backward bending (tensile loading of the chip’s rough top surface) to effectively control long continuous chips into small segments.

One big limitation of using chip breaker geometries in disposable carbide inserts is that the application range is limited to a narrow band depending on cutting conditions. Even within a recommended operating range, chip breakers do not function effectively as designed due to the inherent variations of the cutting process. Moreover, for a particular process, matching the chip breaker geometry with the right cutting conditions to achieve effective chip control is a very iterative process. The existence of a large variety of proprietary chip breaker designs further exacerbates the problem of easily implementing a robust and comprehensive chip control technique. To address the need for a robust and universal chip control technique, a new method is proposed in this work. By using a single tool top form geometry coupled with a tooling system for inducing chip breaking by backward bending, the proposed method achieves comprehensive chip control over a wide range of cutting conditions.

A geometry based model is developed to predict a variable edge inclination angle that guides the chip flow to a predetermined target location. Chip kinematics for the new tool geometry is examined via photographic evidence from experimental cutting trials. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to characterize the chip kinematics. Results from the chip characterization studies indicate that the chip flow and final form show a remarkable consistency across multiple levels of workpiece and tool configurations as well as cutting conditions. A new tooling system is then designed to comprehensively break the chip by backward bending. Test results with the new tooling system prove that by utilizing the chip guidance and backward bending mechanism, long continuous chips can be more consistently broken into smaller segments that are generally deemed acceptable or good chips. It is found that the proposed tool can be applied effectively over a wider range of cutting conditions than present chip breakers thus taking possibly the first step towards achieving universal chip control in machining.