Date of Award

2017

Document Type

Open Access Master's Report

Degree Name

Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MS)

Administrative Home Department

Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Advisor 1

Jeffrey D. Naber

Advisor 2

John H. Johnson

Committee Member 1

Scott A. Miers

Abstract

Abstract

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems along with a NH₃ slip control catalyst (ASC) offers NOₓ conversion efficiency >90 % with NH₃ slip However, future heavy duty diesel (HDD) engines are designed for higher engine-out NOₓ to improve fuel consumption. Consequently, there is a strong desire to further improve the NOₓ reduction performance of SCR systems, to meet the 2015 California Optional Low NOₓ Standard. SCR catalysts on a diesel particulate filter provide an effective solution to reduce NOₓ and PM using a single aftertreatment device. It also provides an opportunity to increase the SCR volume to achieve NOₓ conversion efficiency >95 %. A downstream SCR catalyst substrate can be used to get additional NOx conversion by using the SCRF® outlet NH₃ to increase the cumulative NOₓ conversion of the system.

In this study, NOₓ reduction, NH₃ slip and PM oxidation performance of a Cu-zeolite SCRF® with a downstream Cu-zeolite SCR were investigated based on engine experimental data at steady state conditions. The experimental data were collected at varying SCRF® inlet temperatures, space velocities, inlet NOₓ concentrations, NO₂/ NOₓ ratios at ammonia to NOx ratios (ANR) between 1.02 to 1.10. The results demonstrated that the SCRF® with downstream SCR together can achieve NOₓ conversion efficiency > 98% at ANRs between 1.02 – 1.10 (which may have been due to measurement inaccuracies in downstream SCRF®/SCRdata), for the inlet temperature range of 200 – 370°C, space velocity in the range of 10 to 34 k/hr and inlet NO₂/ NOₓ in the range of 0.3 – 0.5. However, NH₃ slip from the SCRF® decreases and NOₓ concentration downstream of the SCRF® increases with the oxidation of PM in the SCRF®. The PM oxidation kinetics are affected by the deNOₓ reactions, hence, the SCRF® with urea dosing showed ~80 % lower reaction rates during passive oxidation when compared to the production CPF. The effect of varying fuel rail injection pressure on the primary particle diameter and on the Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) fraction of the total carbon was also studied. The primary particle diameter was found to be in the range of 28-30 nm with no effect of the variation in fuel rail injection pressure on it. The OC part of the Total Carbon (TC) did not vary significantly with fuel rail injection pressure. The EC content increased with decrease in fuel rail injection pressure.

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