## Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

2017

#### Document Type

Open Access Dissertation

#### Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematical Sciences (PhD)

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Melissa Keranen

Dalibor Froncek

#### Committee Member 1

Stefaan De Winter

Donald Kreher

#### Abstract

Generally speaking, a distance magic-type labeling of a graph G of order n is a bijection f from the vertex set of the graph to the first n natural numbers or to the elements of a group of order n, with the property that the weight of each vertex is the same. The weight of a vertex x is defined as the sum (or appropriate group operation) of all the labels of vertices adjacent to x. If instead we require that all weights differ, then we refer to the labeling as a distance antimagic-type labeling. This idea can be generalized for directed graphs; the weight will take into consideration the direction of the arcs. In this manuscript, we provide new results for d-handicap labeling, a distance antimagic-type labeling, and introduce a new distance magic-type labeling called orientable Gamma-distance magic labeling.

A d-handicap distance antimagic labeling (or just d-handicap labeling for short) of a graph G=(V,E) of order n is a bijection f from V to {1,2,...,n} with induced weight function w(x_{i})=\underset{x_{j}\in N(x_{i})}{\sum}f(x_{j}) \] such that f(x_{i})=i and the sequence of weights w(x_{1}),w(x_{2}),...,w(x_{n}) forms an arithmetic sequence with constant difference d at least 1. If a graph G admits a d-handicap labeling, we say G is a d-handicap graph.

A d-handicap incomplete tournament, H(n,k,d) is an incomplete tournament of n teams ranked with the first n natural numbers such that each team plays exactly k games and the strength of schedule of the ith ranked team is d more than the i+1st ranked team. That is, strength of schedule increases arithmetically with strength of team. Constructing an H(n,k,d) is equivalent to finding a d-handicap labeling of a k-regular graph of order n.

In Chapter 2 we provide general constructions for every d at least 1 for large classes of both n and k, providing breadth and depth to the catalog of known H(n,k,d)'s.

In Chapters 3 - 6, we introduce a new type of labeling called orientable Gamma-distance magic labeling. Let Gamma be an abelian group of order n. If for a graph G=(V,E) of order n there exists an orientation of G and a companion bijection f from V to Gamma with the property that there is an element mu in Gamma (called the magic constant) such that \[ w(x)=\sum_{y\in N_{G}^{+}(x)}\overrightarrow{f}(y)-\sum_{y\in N_{G}^{-}(x)}\overrightarrow{f}(y)=\mu for every x in V where w(x) is the weight of vertex x, we say that G is orientable Gamma-distance magic}. In addition to introducing the concept, we provide numerous results on orientable Z_n distance magic graphs, where Z_n is the cyclic group of order n.

In Chapter 7, we summarize the results of this dissertation and provide suggestions for future work.

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